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What Kind Of Catalyst Is Used In The Oil Production Process?
Dec 26, 2017

Petroleum refining catalyst, catalyst industry an important product, including catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, hydrotreating, hydrocracking, isomerization, alkylation, stacking and other catalysts used in the process, including catalytic cracking, Catalytic reforming, hydrotreating are the three major petroleum refining catalysts.

Catalytic cracking catalyst fluidized bed catalytic cracking early microsphere amorphous aluminum silicate catalyst developed in the 1960s rare earth-X type, rare earth-Y-type, hydrogen-Y zeolite catalyst, the rapid replacement of aluminum silicate catalyst. In recent years, molecular sieve cracking catalyst to silica sol or alumina sol as binder, the molecular sieve, kaolin bonded together to make a new generation of high-density, high strength semi-synthetic zeolite catalyst. Molecular sieve used in addition to rare earth-Y zeolite, there are ultra-stable hydrogen-Y zeolite and so on. Such catalysts are rapidly promoted and applied to a variety of varieties suitable for different applications, including cracking of cracking oil with anti-pollution catalyst, high-octane gasoline cracking catalyst, air pollution reduction sulfur dioxide catalyst.

In addition, cracking catalysts or carbon monoxide combustion improvers, which promote combustion of carbon monoxide, are also used in catalytic cracking to convert all of the carbon monoxide in the regenerator into carbon dioxide to recover energy and reduce atmospheric pollution of carbon monoxide.

Catalytic reforming catalyst initial catalytic reforming catalyst for the platinum metal catalyst, containing alumina as a carrier. In the 1960s, bimetallic catalysts such as platinum-rhenium, platinum-germanium, platinum-tin and platinum-iridium appeared and the third component of the multimetallic catalyst was added. At present, platinum-rhenium catalysts are the most widely used ones, followed by platinum-tin catalysts, all of which use chlorinated γ-alumina as a carrier. During operation, the catalyst acidity is regulated by controlling the water-chlorine balance in circulating hydrogen. The platinum content of the catalyst is generally 0.375% ~ 0.6%. In recent years, the activity, selectivity and life expectancy of the new generation of reforming catalysts have been raised due to the improvement of the distribution of carrier pores and impregnation technology. The content of platinum in some grades of catalysts has dropped to 0.25%.

Hydrotreating catalysts are mainly molybdenum-cobalt, molybdenum-nickel, tungsten-nickel sulfide catalyst such as γ-alumina or a small amount of silica γ-alumina as a carrier. The shape is usually a strip or ball. Commodity molybdenum oxide, tungsten oxide content is generally 15% to 18%, nickel oxide, cobalt oxide content is generally about 3%. Vulcanization in the hydrogenation unit into a sulfide catalyst and then use. Molybdenum-cobalt catalysts are mostly used for hydrodesulfurization, molybdenum-nickel catalysts are mostly used for hydrodenitrogenation, tungsten-nickel catalysts are mostly used for aromatics saturation, and molybdenum-cobalt-nickel catalysts have better desulfurization activity and denitrification activity. In addition, there are platinum and palladium metal catalysts for the hydrogenation of jet fuel aromatics and solvent oil refining.

70 years, hydrotreating catalyst major technical progress is the appearance of trilobal, quaternary and other shaped catalyst. They have high activity, good strength, small pressure drop and so on. In recent years, the hydrotreating catalyst improves the preparation technology of pore distribution and impregnation of the carrier, improves the activity and the life, and achieves the purpose of reducing the reaction temperature, the pressure, the hydrogen-oil ratio and the like to save the energy consumption of the hydrogenation device. In order to meet the need of atmospheric residue hydrotreating, hydrogenation demetallation catalysts have also been developed.

The hydrocracking catalyst is made of precious metal palladium or molybdenum-nickel, tungsten-nickel sulfide as hydrogenation component, amorphous silica-alumina, ultra-stable Y-type molecular sieve and the like as cracking components.

In addition, commonly used: phosphoric acid - diatomite catalyst for lamination of olefins; sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid catalyst for alkylation of petroleum hydrocarbons; platinum-mordenite molecular sieve catalyst for isomerization of hydrocarbons; ZSM shape selective molecular sieve catalyst.